Best Practice Report
The Best Practice Report is produced as
a guide for researchers, literary historians and the owners and managers of
historical children's book collections. It brings together the CHILDE European
partners’ expertise on the following three themes:
The report consists of case studies,
written by the partners and based on their own in-house collections.
These have been compiled and analysed
and are now presented as a Best Practice Model for the development and
utilisation of children's historical book collections throughout Europe.
Please click here to obtain a
downloadable copy of this document in pdf format.
Representatives of the following collections associated
with the CHILDE project have given much thought to the conservation and
preservation of historical book stocks: Wandsworth Borough Library Service,
Buckinghamshire County Library Service, Dublin City Public Libraries; Institut
fur Jugendbuchforschung, Frankfurt; International Youth Library, Munich;
Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague. What they agree upon is that there are two
different aspects to maintaining historical childrens’ literature:
1. Conservation: First and foremost it is a
matter of generally saving early children’s books from obliteration by
integrating them into a library or private collection. To trace smaller or
larger collections and, where possible, to combine them, to complement them by
acquisitions or donations and to maintain them for present or future research.
2. Preservation: the collected books must undergo
restoration to halt and prevent their physical disintegration to which these
kind of books are particularly prone because of the heavy demand by children
and the use of inferior paper. As with other rare books restoration should be
undertaken in such a way as to preserve the original form as much as possible.
The individual approaches made by the various libraries are set out in the
County Library Service, UK
Buckinghamshire Records and Local Studies Service was
invited to report on the condition of the Children's Historic Book Collection,
in 1998. Two conservators, Jeff Cargill and Samantha Joiner, inspected each
volume and estimated the numbers which required some sort of repair. The cost
of the conservation work was estimated at £12,000. The following table gives a
breakdown of the numbers of volumes and the type of repair needed.
need of rebinding
need of rebacking
need of minor repair
The Heritage Lottery Fund appointed Deborah Novotny,
Head of Selection and Preservation at the British Library, to advise them on
the conservation of the collection. She suggested that a passive approach to
conservation would be more suited to the collection than wholesale rebinding.
This would include repair work where appropriate, but not de-acidification. It
was likely that the majority of the volumes would require book shoes (a card
box open to the rear to reveal the spine) and in some instants a phase box (an
enclosed card box).
With this less intrusive policy in mind, Samantha Joiner
and Lesley Kumiega, the Project Librarian, prioritised the work:
volumes requiring immediate repair and mechanical
volumes requiring less immediate treatment
volumes requiring book shoes
volumes which were particularly appealing and would be
loose items requiring transparent sleeves
A conservation timetable was drawn up and split into
Phase 1: Feb- June 2000
The items which had suffered considerable damage and
deterioration, having boards missing or needing a re-back etc, requiring
Phase 2: June- August 2000
The volumes which required less immediate treatment.
They would form part of the working collection, but would need to be handled to
a lesser extent.
Phase 3: Sept-Dec 2000
The volumes which were particularly appealing and would
be displayed, and items which had risen in priority by cataloguing and
Phase 4: Jan-Feb 2001
Any other treatment that might be found necessary,
including sleeving of individual sheets of ephemera.
About 400 volumes and ephemera were selected for
treatment. A record sheet was designed and one sheet filled in for each volume
to record all treatments applied. A standard book shoe was designed to hold the
boards and support the text block. About 350 shoes were made from folding box
Children’s Book Collection Conservation Record
Description Of Damage
Dublin City Public
Preservation: ". . .action taken to anticipate, prevent,
stop or retard deterioration."
Conservation: the maintenance of each item in the collection in a usable
Restoration: ". . . the act of returning the deteriorated item to its
original or near-original condition."1
(Wesley L. Boomgaarden)
Trinity College, Dublin
Trinity College Library houses the country's main conservation activity. The
Conservation Laboratory employs four conservators and a number of technicians.
The Library maintains an international internship program that attracts young
conservators from abroad who wish to spend a year working with the Library's
staff and collections.
Microfilming is used at Trinity and digitisation of individual items and
collections is in an early stage. As the major national centre, Trinity's
Conservation Laboratory undertakes specialist work from time to time on behalf
of other institutions including those that have no facilities of their own.
The university library has no written policy on restoration, preservation and
storage of historical children's literature.
Trinity College Library trains its own conservation staff as well as assisting
with the training of staff based elsewhere. Other libraries sometimes send
people for training to the Library. Encouragement is given to staff to develop
their skills by attending short courses outside the institution.
The owner took various issues into account:
Environmental monitoring – books were stored in a well-ventilated room where
fluctuations in the temperature and humidity were kept to a minimum (as much as
possible in a home). Direct sunlight and strong light avoided.
Preservation packaging of many delicate items in the collection. Horizontal
storage of most items preferred. Priority to keep the books stable, support
them, allow the book to be viewed
National Library of Ireland
The National Library has a conservation workshop, a bindery and a special
officer managing preservation issues. The Library also has a written
preservation policy. The institution recently opened its new premises with a
fully equipped microfilming unit and special storage rooms for its photographic
The new flush binding system, developed in the Conservation Laboratory of
Trinity College Dublin, continued in operation at the Library’s Technical
Services Building in 1999. This is a very cost-effective system, and has the
additional advantage that the original covers of paperback books remain
Staff provided by Trinity College on a recoupment basis dealt with almost 4,500
paperback books during the year at a cost to the Library of approximately
£14,000. The large backlog of such books awaiting binding has now been
eliminated and the books become available to readers as soon as they
have been catalogued.
The Library houses the Delmas Bindery that has its own conservation laboratory.
Church of Ireland College of Education
This collection is housed in optimum conditions for conserving material. A cool
temperature is maintained and the material is protected from light.
Dublin City Public Libraries
DCL’s historical children’s literature collection is not singled out for
specialist conservation and preservation treatment but is managed in the same
way as the rest of their historical collections. When the need arises material
in need of treatment is sent to specialist services such as the Delmas Bindery
at Marsh’s library. We are also pursuing a policy of actively trying to ‘fill
in gaps’ in our existing historical children’s book collection.
Links on the subject of protecting paper and book collections during exhibition
Osborne Collection Toronto
Jugendbuchforschung, Frankfurt, Germany
The Library for Research into Books for Young People at the Goethe University
Frankfurt contains approx. 18,000 media items of historical literature for
children and young people covering the period from the sixteenth century up to
1945. The Library also aims to collect the entire output of German literature
for children and young people, as well as significant publications of
foreign-language literature for children and young people in all its different
media and publication formats: illustrated broadsheets, picture books,
illustrated and non-illustrated books for children and young readers, magazines
either singly or in bound volumes, brochures, journals and journal series. In
addition, there is a small collection of historical card and board games. The
entire stock consists of a year-by-year collection (general catalogue) of
approx. 15,500 volumes, and three special collections of altogether approx.
2,500 volumes named after their previous owners Arthur Rumann, Kari Hobrecker
and Walter Benjamin. A further special collection of approx. 200 historical
editions of 'Strip Cartoons and Comics'.
These latter, special collections, containing a wealth of especially valuable
media items, are kept in separate stacks or steel cabinets, whilst the
year-by-year collection is kept in a compact system with movable shelves. The
shelf units are 223 cm high and the bottom shelves are 30 cm deep. Due to the
variable formats of children’s books the bottom shelves are spaced at between
30 and 33 cm. Extremely large formats are stored in separate shelf units with
particularly wide bottom shelf spacing. Technical safety devices include smoke
alarms and fireproof doors.
Since April 2001 the stockrooms of the Library for Research into Books for Young
People, with a total stacking area of approx. 3,000 metres, have been housed in
the basement (Q I) of the Library Centre for the Humanities (Bibliothekszentrum
Geisteswissenschaften - BZG) of the new Westend campus of the Goethe
University. This location offers scope for future expansion of the historical
children’s books collection, which is constantly enlarged and updated by
donations and acquisitions from antiquarian booksellers. Storage in the
basement guarantees conditions that are suitable for the preservation of books
in that it offers, to a large extent, protection from sunlight and climatic
Some of the books stored in the special collections have had transparent
protective covers fitted to minimise possible damage by users. Any repair work
to damaged copies of the historical children’s books collection is commissioned
from expert restorers. This is to ensure that the books are being preserved as
closely as possible in their original form.
It is anticipated that part of the historical collections will have to undergo a
paper de- acidifying process to protect it from decay. In addition, measures
will have to be taken for the complete digitising of the most valuable and most
endangered books. On account of the extremely high costs, however, such plans
can only be realised through special programmes initiated by institutional
sponsors for the sciences or scientific libraries.
Library, Munich, Germany
Based on the library’s own experience and the intensive collaboration with
scholars and collectors the following guidelines for historic children’s book
1. Conservation (maintaining children’s and young people’s books for the
Historic children’s and young people’s books are vital period documents in that
they reflect the respective ideal image a given society has formed of itself,
how that society should be and how it could be improved, so that these concepts
could be brought to children by example. It follows then that it was worthwhile
not only to collect and maintain so-called valuable and prettily illustrated
children’s books but also the trivial children’s literature which can, from a
thematic aspect, be equally informative. In addition it is sensible to collect
different editions of important titles, not only to demonstrate their
popularity but also because their content was often amended to correspond to
the current ‘Zeitgeist’ and state of education.
2. Preservation (the physical maintenance of the original objects)
Children’s books need to be restored with particular care and effort to make
them endure the centuries because their binding and paper were for economic
reasons often of poor quality. Popular titles, moreover, were handled
extensively and are frequently heavily worn. Many titles are extremely rare
because they were first read to shreds and then thrown away. Consequently, the
libraries must keep even badly worn specimens as documentary evidence.
First of all the text block must be restored as individual sheets are often torn
and loose and moreover stained and scribbled on. The tendency of many children
to often crudely colour the monotone illustrations with crayon or watercolours
deflect from their artistic effect. It is therefore recommended to reverse, or
at least to diminish these colourations as far as possible. In contrast,
children’s drawings made onto the blank endpapers may be considered interesting
documentary evidence of the period and should be kept. The fixing of pages with
now rusty staples - a cheap method introduced at the end of the 19th
century - must be removed to prevent rust from further damaging the paper.
Similarly, the adhesive from the modern amateurish repair with sticky tape also
needs to be cleaned off (with petrol) as it has caused the paper to decay.
Furthermore, the covers are often heavily damaged and soiled and need to be
cleaned, repaired and firmly re-attached to the text block. Since ca. 1850
books appeared more frequently with publishers’ pre-printed, illustrated cloth
or cardboard covers. If possible, the original covers should be conserved
because apart from their significance for the art of book design they
represent, as publishers’own covers, often the only distinguishing mark between
various editions. This also applies to protective covers.
In the cheap production method from approximately 1850 onwards wood
pulp-containing paper was frequently used which now shows the inevitable
symptoms of decay. It would be of utmost urgency to carry out a massive
de-acidification at justifiable costs.
To guarantee special protection from theft and guard against decay historic
children’s books, like other historic collections, must be kept in lockable
stacks under controlled climatic conditions. Specially appointed staff trained
in handling historic collections should be responsible for removing and
Attaching book mark labels should be avoided as these damage and disfigure the
book covers. The IJB follows the example of the Berlin National Library –
Cultural Heritage of Prussia - (Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Preußischer
Kulturbesitz) and, using a rice pulp, attaches an acid-free marking strip which
can be folded inwards if necessary (for exhibitions).
The stamping, too, of historically valuable books often cannot be avoided for
legal reasons. Upon recommendation by the Bavarian National Library (Bayerische
Staatsbibliothek) the IJB uses acid-free stamp ink based on soot and oil and
applies the stamp with as little colour as possible on the inner title page.
The smallest possible special stamp is recommended.
Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague, The Netherlands
The measures for preservation and conservation of early and modern
children’s books in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek of The Hague consist of some
very practical issues.
Early and modern children’s books are never allowed out of the building for
regular customer services. Early and modern children’s books are to be used on
site. Only for exhibition purposes and under strict conditions can the material
be transported to other institutions in The Netherlands or abroad.
The books are kept in the original state as much as possible. They are not to
be rebound, the dustjackets won’t be removed, the books will not receive a
visible library stamp and no shelfmarks will be put on the bookcovers.
The most rare, precious and vulnerable copies are kept in especially climatised
stocks, as to guarantee the very best conditions for storage. The relative
humidity and the temperature in these stocks is kept on a constant level.
Copies are kept in specially made acid-free boxes. This keeps light and dust
away as much as possible. Small or large items are kept in special cases, in
special acid-free paper or melinex slipcases.
Dutch early children’s books from the period 1840-1950 are to be microfilmed,
some 5,000 already are. The original early and modern children’s books are put
away in closed envelopes, which guarantees better storage conditions. When
necessary the microfilm is presented for research purposes to the customers.
When the material appears to be in very poor condition, books can be
subject to restoration (paper, binding, illustration etc.).
Borough Library Service, UK
For much of its existence, the Wandsworth Collection of Early Children’s books
has been housed on open shelves, either in an office or in a basement room.
Over the years it has had to be moved several times.
During the 1980’s, it was given what was hoped, a permanent home in a secure
room in the basement of one of the libraries. Shelving was acquired with
lockable glass fronts but there was no climate control and heating pipes ran
through the room. No supervision was available though the room was kept locked,
nor was there a handling policy.
A successful application for a Heritage Lottery Grant meant that Wandsworth was
able to contract a specialist conservator to stabilise the collection,
including uncatalogued material acquired from Kensington and Chelsea.
The brief did not cover any restoration, though in a few cases loose pages were
tipped-in. Rather the work involved:
assessing the state of each item,
producing a conservation record
stabilising the item, if necessary either using ties or by boxing material in
acid-free conservation boxes or casing in acid-free clear envelopes.
Fragile materials were invariably boxed. The collection of chapbooks had always
been stored in the plastic pockets of photograph albums. It was decided to
leave these as they were since they were in a good state of preservation. A
similar decision was taken over a series of French novels with decorated
bindings, which had been given library cases – even though these were not
In 1997, the refurbished Putney Library was opened. The plans included a
purpose built room to provide a permanent home for the Collection. Completely
interior, with a secure lock and a separate alarm, the room has been provided
with adjustable metal shelving and a climate control system which maintains the
atmosphere at 50% humidity, 22C. There is an established handling policy and in
addition, staff have had basic handling training.
Children’s books published
during the period from the 15th century to approximately 1950 are defined as
historical. They are contained in named libraries and have been made accessible
to users through cataloguing. Many of the historical children’s books have
become rare as they have been either discarded by children after intensive use
or their collectible value has not been recognised by libraries in time. The
extant copies are often heavily worn and are therefore particularly fragile for
conservation. Yet, many must be kept on account of their rarity. They mostly
require extensive restorative treatment.
What is evident from the individual
reports is that most children’s book collections have specialised restoration
workshops at their disposal or have access to those of larger libraries.
Concrete measures to prevent the disintegration of books, especially in the
children’s book sections, have so far been implemented only by Buckinghamshire
Library. The individual assessments as to the extent of protective measures
vary not least because of cost. However, a delay in the de-acidification of the
wood pulp-containing paper which has been used for printing children’s books
during the 19th and 20th centuries would be inadvisable. The disintegration of
the untreated paper is progressive and, according to the latest technological
development, can only be halted but not reversed and the paper stabilised by
the process of de-acidification.
International Youth Library, Munich, Germany
Any collection of early children’s books, whether it is small or large;
whether it represents books that are fifty years or several centuries old,
faces the problem of access to the collection and of recording its holdings.
CHILDE represents a variety of such special collections. Some of them are large
national collections, others are more modest and belong to a local authority,
or private individual. All have had to face these problems and have had to
reach a solution.
County Library Service, UK
The catalogue project
An experience cataloguer was appointed to undertake six months work on compiling
records. It was hoped they would provide entries for the Buckinghamshire County
Library Service catalogue which would serve as a basis for the bibliography
which was to be published to promote the collection more widely, particularly
among the academic and research communities.
Existing cataloguing system
Buckinghamshire County Library Service uses the Bibliomondo system for all its
technical processes and this system, being a long established system, was very
straightforward to use, particularly when creating the catalogue. There was the
facility to create full catalogue entries utilising all established MARC
protocols, but it was not configured with very sophisticated or flexible output
formats. As a result, a decision was made to catalogue separately onto the
Bibliomondo system, creating short entry catalogue records to simplify and
speed up the process. The cataloguer decided that this process could be
undertaken at the end of the project after detailed entries had been created
for the bibliography and this could then be used as the basis for data entry.
The catalogue entries included author and title, and the latter needed to be
abbreviated on occasion as the fields for this system were fixed length. In
addition the subject field was used to indicate the name of the collection,
with a subheading for the category of literature, to enable searches to be
carried out for the collection as a whole.
Alternatives to Bibliomondo
It was decided that a, bibliographic database management package would be used
to create the bibliographic entries. The software is designed to accommodate
bibliographic data of all kinds, both print and non-print and seemed likely to
need little adjustment to fit the need. The package came with a wide range of
suitable pre-determined report formats. A number of output options were usually
available, including transfer to popular WP packages. It was possible to speed
up the process by downloading records from external databases. With future
plans for a Web site in mind, databases created by the use of a bibliographic
database management package could be easily uploaded for use on the Internet.
There were a number of packages available in this category. The cataloguer had
considerable experience of one of the most sophisticated of these, ProCite, so
the decision was made to purchase this package and install it on the project
workstation for present and future use.
Creating the database
One of the existing ProCite record formats, called Workforms, was designed to
hold data relating to all the parts of a whole book and this was used without
any adjustments being necessary apart from a protocol being drawn up for the
kinds of information to be added to each field. As well as the standard
bibliographic description fields such as Author, Title, imprint details (place,
publisher name, year of publication), series and subject, other useful features
included a field for the original date of publication, which gave added value
to the historical information provided. Another important record field was the
Abstract Field, this was used to make appropriate annotations, such as where
the items in the collection were anthologies of stories or verse or the entries
would be enhanced by individual parts being listed. All the fields were
variable length fields and this was particularly useful for the Title field
where there was a need to include sometimes very lengthy detail from the title
pages of the books prior to the nineteenth century. Although the structure of
the database permitted the listing of second authors in a separate field,
detail such as the names of illustrators could be added to the Title field.
For data entry, it was beneficial that the books only needed handling once,
since some of the items were in a fragile condition. The only other information
that the cataloguer considered necessary for the bibliography was some basic
collation information (pagination, number of illustrations, size of item) and
some mention of any missing pages or the condition of the item. The
Keyword/Subject field was used to define the categories of literature that
comprised the collection
Anthologies and Miscellanies
Annuals and Periodicals
Fairy Stories, Fables, and Folk Tales
Nursery Rhymes and Songs
Picture Books and Alphabets
Toybooks, Keepsakes and Moveables
Games and Pastimes
Poetry and Verse
Stories before 1850
Stories 1850 - 1914
These categories were based on an examination of the collection at the beginning
of the project and an investigation of the catalogues of similar collections,
such as the Wandsworth collection in London and the Osborne Collection in
Dublin City Public
Trinity College Dublin
The university library has catalogued its children's literature according to
AACRI rules, British version with local variations. A detailed provenance index
has been created for historical material, including children’s literature.
Much of the material held in the library is available via the online catalogue,
however access to some library holdings is via the manual catalogue only.
While identifying historical children's literature in the library's collection
from the online catalogue is straightforward, searching the manual catalogue
for children’s material presents major difficulties.
Marsh’s Library uses the UKMARC cataloguing rules. Only a tiny proportion of
Marsh’s holdings is children’s material and such material is not specifically
identified in the catalogue. The catalogue is not designed to allow easy access
to children’s material
National Library of Ireland
During 1999, the Library changed its cataloguing format from UKMARC to USMARC,
converting existing records to USMARC, and sourcing new bibliographic records
from the OCLC Worldcat service. These changes required a considerable amount of
staff training that inevitably affected output during the year. The new system
is, however, already leading to greater efficiency and increased output. The
hit rate on OCLC for new books is about 90%, and records for second-hand
material are also numerous on OCLC, and of a high quality.
Church of Ireland College of Education
While the library’s main collection is available through an OPAC within the
library, the historical collection is maintained via a card catalogue.
No written catalogue, however much of the individual material has been
catalogued and researched to a high standard
Dublin City Public Libraries
Material is catalogued according to AACR2 rules with some local variations. The
cataloguing format is UKMARC. As part of the current on-line cataloguing
project, DCL have begun to create a provenance index for all historical
material held in the collections.
fur Jugendbuchforschung, Frankfurt, Germany
Since the founding of the Institute in 1963 the stock of historical books for
children and young people has been catalogued conventionally in accordance with
the "Instructions for, the Alphabetical Indexing of Prussian Libraries of 10.5"
1899 (PI), though in mechanical word order. Indexing was by genres and
subject-related sur- and sub-keywords. The shelf mark system for the entire
year-by-year stock - as well as for the Walter Benjamin collection - has been
arranged chronologically from K 0 (sixteenth century) to K 5 (twenty first
century). There are seven different card indexes for book searches:
alphabetical index (i.e. author index)
index for translated copies
Since 1991 the books have been catalogued by EDP in accordance with the
"Regulations for Alphabetical Indexing in Scientific Libraries" (Regeln fur die
alphabetische Katalogisierung in wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken - RAK-WB). The
EDP database which has been compiled in an MAB format by means of the library
database system BISMAS (developed by the University of Oldenburg) comprises at
present approx. 17,000 title entries. An EDP-aided retro-indexing of the
historical collections is planned in the medium term, but additional funding
and support from other partners involved with children's books is still needed.
Youth Library, Munich, Germany
The IJB has participated in electronic cataloguing since it was implemented
within the Federation of Bavarian Libraries (Bibliotheksverbund Bayern – BVB).
The cataloguing of a large part of the historic collections has been funded by
the German Research Assciation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). These titles
are now available on the Internet (www.bib-bvb.de)
(Verbund-OPAC) and www.ijb.de
Regulations within the BVB for the alphabethical cataloguing in scientific
libraries - (Regeln für die Alphabetische Katalogisierung – wissenschaftliche
Bibliotheken – RAK-WB) have been introduced for online catalogues throughout
Germany. These regulations are often inadequate for cataloguing historic
children’s books as they often reduce and standardise data. There is therefore
no way of distinguishing between different editions. For children’s books up to
about 1930 we would recommend the use of detailed pre-1800 regulations which
were in force at that time for cataloguing historical books, whereby all
editors and translators are to be listed. Illustrators, unless mentioned on the
title page, should be named if possible.
If time allows all illustrations which have been glued onto special paper and
interleaved between paginated sheets should be listed numerically as they are
often loose, drop out or are intentionally torn out. The illustration method
should also be described, at least up to the disappearance of lithography and
xylography (from ca. 1890).
Bibliotheek, The Hague, The Netherlands
The Koninklijke Bibliotheek houses the largest collection of early and modern
children’s books in The Netherlands. In the catalogue of the Royal Library the
early and modern children’s books are treated as other items. The rules for
cataloguing are according to the internationally used ISBD-rules, and to the
guidelines of the Dutch FOBID. The database that is used is the national GGC,
provided by Pica. The shared automated cataloguing system GGC has been
developed since 1978 into an efficient and reliable tool for the management of
libraries, particularly for the cataloguing of all kinds of publications. More
than 200 libraries use the GGC every day for cataloguing. Beside academic and
public libraries, an increasing number of special libraries use the GGC. By
cataloguing in the GGC, these libraries also add to and maintain the
Netherlands Union Catalogue (NCC), which forms the basis for the Dutch
national, interlibrary loans. The aim of the GGC is that a publication needs to
be catalogued only once. In this way, libraries make optimum use of each
other's cataloguing. The references from the GGC can be processed into a
library's own catalogue via offline-output or direct download.
Apart from the point of view of cultural heritage and value, this also means
that the Koninklijke Bibliotheek has a national bibliographic responsibility.
Therefore the Koninklijke Bibliotheek is happy to take part in the Centraal
Bestand Kinderboeken (CBK), the national shared catalogue of children’s books.
The CBK consists of bibliographical descriptions of over 100,000 early and
modern children’s books and journals, mostly in Dutch language. Videotapes,
sound recordings and similar products are included as far as they are related
to children’s literature. The original copies are to be found in the
collections of one of the following institutions:
Openbare Bibliotheek Amsterdam
Dienst Bibliotheek en Archief Den Haag
Koninklijke Bibliotheek Den Haag
Stads- en Athenaeumbibliotheek Deventer
The Kinderboekenmuseum (National Early and Modern Children’s Book Museum) is the
responsible curator of the CBK and takes care of categorisation and subject
indexing of the relevant material. Lists of relevant genres and subject
headings (in Dutch) are available in the database. They can be searched by
scanning the ‘trefwoord’ or ‘genre’ indexes. For free access see
www.letterkundigmuseum.nl . Select ‘Catalogus’, scroll down and select CBK. For
further enquiries please contact:
Letterkundig Museum, afdeling Collecties
2509 LM Den Haag
Tel.: + (31) (0) 703339637
Fax : + (31) (0) 703477941
Wandsworth Borough Library Service, UK
The first catalogue of the collection appeared in 1972 in typescript and was
organised alphabetically under author or title. The entries were created using
AACR guidelines. Author dates were included when known, and any further
information – original publication date, inscriptions etc - were recorded. The
author names favoured were usually the best known – even if this was a
pseudonym. Individual volumes, including duplicates and periodicals were
However, this catalogue was soon inadequate since it very quickly failed to
reflect the collection accurately. This had been organised thematically
following the example of the Osborne Collection in Toronto. It was clear that
the catalogue would have to be revised. In 1985/6 this became possible with the
acquisition of a grant from the British Library. At the same time the decision
was taken to create a machine-readable format with a view to publication of the
The rules followed were broadly those set out by the Anglo American Cataloguing
Rules (AACR 2), but a pragmatic approach was adopted as far as possible. It was
decided that all measurements would be checked and that plates would be
recorded but not counted. Authors were described under the name by which they
were commonly known even if this was a pseudonym, (there would be references to
alternative names and all names would be indexed). In a few instances when an
author wrote under several names, a "blanket" heading was used – i.e. WARNER
for WETHERELL. The collection is fortunate in the number of duplicate and
variant editions it contains. Provided they were different editions or had some
significant variation, they were included as individual entries. In the case of
periodicals, a general entry describes the publication and then the
collection’s holdings are listed. New information and research was to be added
but it was decided that full descriptive cataloguing was not possible given the
The published catalogue appeared in 1997. It was organised thematically to match
the collection itself. The categories were chosen after consulting other
specialist catalogues such as Osborne, Reading and Manchester and were then
arranged in an order loosely based on Dewey Classification . The books
themselves have not been classified, but are arranged alphabetically within the
categories. For the purpose of the printed catalogue each entry was numbered
consecutively. This, however, has proved limiting, especially as the software
used does not allow automatic renumbering. The index allows entry by author,
title and illustrator differentiated by typeface. Unfortunately, the software
used could not create an index, and it was not possible to use a wider set of
The collection has grown since the publication of the catalogue and
there are a large number of items to be added. However, it is not possible to
incorporate them in the existing file. As a result, it has been decided to
catalogue the items directly onto the Wandsworth Catalogue using MARC format.
They will be given a Special Collection code and will be accessible on-line via
the Wandsworth Libraries Web-site. Decisions still have to be taken as to the
extent of the catalogue entries and the searchable terms to be available; at
the very least it is hoped this will include author (actual name and
pseudonym), title, illustrator, publisher and series. A future project will
look into converting the existing catalogue files so that they can also be
Reading these reports, it becomes apparent that though each collection may have
had to respond to the problem of recording their holdings within a specific
context, there are a number of common considerations. First and foremost, there
is the need to record each item. Again common elements emerge – author, title,
illustrator, publisher and date. Another consideration that becomes obvious is
how the information is to be recorded. Here, a standard protocol is the
favoured option, whether MARC or a national protocol. Examples such as these
are invaluable for others who may find themselves faced with the organisation
and cataloguing of a special collection. By providing such examples, CHILDE is
also making possible greater standardisation within such collections – many of
which may have few resources – and so enable wider access and an extension of
knowledge in this area.
Wandsworth Borough Libraries
Utilisation and Dissemination
This report presents the expertise of the project partners in the area of
collection utilisation and dissemination.
The preservation and cataloguing of a collection is a primary step prior to
development of a plan or concept related to the exploitation, dissemination and
utilisation of books in the interests of readers. The plan may be aimed at
serious academic research, educational use in primary schools, personal
pleasure, or a combination of all of the above. The organisation’s own ethos
will dictate this, that is to say, an academic institute will possibly reserve
its collection for researchers in that field whereas a public library may be
more likely to allow general public access to its collection, albeit under
The images compiled under CHILDE have come from very disparate sources.
They range from the Frankfurt-based Institut für Jugendbuchforschung to a
private Irish collection. This gives rise to huge variety in the way
collections are managed. A reading of the case studies below shows this. In
some cases collections were purposefully put together while in others they were
assembled almost by accident. In the latter, it was only in recent years that
the value of such collections was realised and efforts were made to care for
them and to exploit them.
Library Service, UK
In 1999 Buckinghamshire County Library Service received a grant from the
Heritage Lottery Fund to catalogue and re-house its collection of 1,500
nineteenth and early twentieth century children's books. An important element
of this project was the commitment to providing public access to the
collection, which had for the previous 50 years been kept in secure
accommodation and had not been available for public view. This represented a
challenge, as many of the books are both rare and fragile.
It was decided to approach this task in a number of ways:
The decision was taken to house the collection in a medium sized branch library
in the market town of Chesham. The library had scope for physical extension, is
easily accessible by train. It was also important that this library is open for
6 days a week, allowing maximum opportunity for the general public to visit it.
The Heritage Lottery grant was used, in part, to build an extension to Chesham
Library. The collection is visible to all people entering the library. The
books themselves are housed in specially designed cases. These are made of
Beech wood and are fitted with lockable glass doors. The glass is specially
treated to filter out harmful sunlight, as are the windows of the extension
itself. Within each case a combination of flat and sloping display shelves
allow the books to be displayed in a visually interesting manner. Attractive,
professionally produced shelf guiding was commissioned from a firm of sign
makers. The arrangement of the books in this area and also the wording used on
the shelf guides was chosen to mirror the layout and terminology of the printed
bibliography (see below).
A key element of the whole project was the publication of a printed bibliography
of the collection's holdings. It was decided to produce this to high design and
production standards, using full colour and monochrome plates and passages of
linking text. The bibliography was published in March 2001 and is available for
purchase from Buckinghamshire County Library Service (Buckinghamshire Early
Children's Book Collection. ISBN: 0 86059 604 4. Price: £25.)
In order to publicise both the collection and the printed bibliography, a full
colour leaflet and poster were commissioned. Copies of these have been
displayed in all libraries in the county and have also been distributed to
various relevant national organisations.
A set of written guidance notes for visitors have also been produced, containing
advice on the handling and care of the books.
An Education Programme was devised with the aim of:
promoting the existence and nature of the collection at Chesham
encouraging a wider interest in the preservation, care and promotion of
historic children's books collections
promoting a wider knowledge of the history of children's literature and
promoting a wider knowledge of the historical context in which the books were
originally written and produced
supporting the work of teachers and students
This was to be achieved by means of:
The collection also acquired an existence on the Internet. A special page was
created on the Buckinghamshire County library service Web site. Access to the
catalogue records of the collection can also be obtained through this site,
where the collection is identified as the Buckinghamshire Children's Historic
Book Collection. The creation of the CHILDE Web site has also enhanced access
to information about the collection. Given the increasing importance of the
Internet in all aspects of library and information work, it is anticipated that
the virtual existence of the collection will develop. Efforts will certainly be
made to raise the interest of the world-wide digital community in the field
historical children’s books.
Dublin City Public
The images contributed by Dublin come from five unrelated collections. In
addition to including works from DCPL stock, contributions were also accepted
from the National Library of Ireland, Trinity College, Dublin, Marsh’s Library,
the library of the Church of Ireland College of Education and a private
collection. In all cases, except for that of the private collection, children’s
historical literature is not separated from the main historical literature
collections of the library institutions. This factor caused some difficulties
in tracing suitable material to include in the project. The images selected are
representative only of the material held in these collections.
National Library of Ireland (NLI):
The NLI uses standard rules for access to the collection. The NLI does not
separate its children's collection from other works.
Children’s material on the on-line catalogue is accessible through keyword or
subject searches such as 'children's literature', ‘children’s books’ etc.
However much of the library’s collection is not yet on-line and accessing
material specifically for children in the older bound catalogue books depends
on the user knowing an author or book title. As such there is a wealth of
children’s material that is inaccessible and, it may be inferred,
under-utilised as a result. As more of the library’s material goes on-line,
utilisation of the children’s material should increase.
Access to the library is free and open to members of the public engaged in
research. For use of reading room instructions, see
http://www.nli.ie/fr_serv.htm (.pdf files).
Trinity College, Dublin Library
As with the National Library, children’s material on Trinity’s on-line catalogue
is accessible via keyword or subject searches. Problems arise for material not
yet on-line in that children’s literature is not specifically identified in
older catalogues. The library user is dependent on knowing exact book titles,
author names etc.
Trinity College does not have a policy of promoting the historical children's
literature held in their collection. Consequently it is not possible to
identify who uses this part of their stock. Similarly they have never exhibited
historical children's literature from their collection.
Admission to the Library is open to current students, graduates of Dublin
University, academic staff and registered doctoral students from institutions
whose libraries are participating in the ALCID scheme - Academic Libraries
Co-operating in Dublin. Other users requiring access to the Library for
research purposes can apply in writing to the Librarian specifying the nature
of their research and the special collections to which they require access. See
http://www.tcd.ie/Library/abtlib.htm for further details.
Church of Ireland College of Education, Dublin
This library is part of a teacher training college and is used by the students
as a study and teaching resource. The library’s historical children's
literature collection consists of a small but pristine collection of books
published by the Kildare Place Society, an early 19th century
organisation dedicated to the education of poor Irish children.
While the library’s main collection is available via an on-line catalogue, the
historical material is maintained via a card catalogue. The Kildare Place
publications comprise a set of numbered volumes and the card catalogue provides
access by title. As such it is not possible to search for material by subject,
The library does not provide access to its resources via the Web and the
collection is known only to those in the college and those with an active
interest in the area of children’s literature. Thus while the collection is not
actively promoted as a resource, access is possible for research purposes etc.
by arrangement with the library staff.
Founded in 1701, the Library was the first public library in Ireland. The
library contains over 25,000 books relating to the 16th, 17th and 18th
centuries, covering medicine, law, science, travel, navigation, mathematics,
music, surveying and classical literature.
Access is open to the public for a nominal entrance fee. Scholars and students
are welcome to carry out research, and are admitted free, upon application to
the Keeper of the library.
The entire library catalogue is available online through the library Web page.
An OPAC is available in the library and the original catalogue is still
Children's material forms a small proportion of Marsh’s collections and as such
it is very difficult to locate through the catalogue. Library users are
dependent on the expertise of library staff and their knowledge of the
collection in order to identify items specifically for children.
This collection has been built-up through the personal interest of the
collector, a rare books expert, and is stored in her home. Consequently it is
not designed to be accessed by the public, although researchers are facilitated
as far as possible.
While there is no written catalogue, many individual books are catalogued to an
extremely high standard by the collector who has an extensive knowledge of the
material in the collection.
Dublin Corporation Public Libraries
Dublin’s historical children’s book collection is not a distinct collection but
is part of the Dublin and Irish Collection, which is intended for serious
students and researchers as well as the general public. It includes the
collection of books on early Dublin contained in the library of Sir John
Gilbert as well as the DIX collection (early Irish printing and binding), a
Yeats collection, a collection of Dublin and Irish directories, periodicals,
newspapers, maps and prints. A comprehensive collection of material of Irish
interest is also available as well as a considerable amount of material of
When the CHILDE project began, identifying material in the collection
specifically aimed at children proved to be time consuming as most of the
historical collection was searchable by card catalogue (author and title) only.
The entire collection is currently being catalogued on-line however and
specific efforts are being made to improve access to children’s material
through the use of subject headings such as children’s book collection, chap
book collection, school books collection.
Jugendbuchforschung, Frankfurt, Germany
At present the reading rooms are open for users from 09.00 to 16.30 hrs Monday
to Friday. An extension of the opening hours up to 22.00 hrs, and to 18.00 hrs
on Saturdays, is planned as soon as the required structures are ready and the
security systems are in operation.
Users of the library of historical children's books collections extend far
beyond lecturers and students of the Goethe University. Frankfurt, home of the
national library, has with the city and university library, a further library
with valuable historical collections and attracts students and researchers as
well as bibliophiles from Germany, Europe and all over the world. Accordingly,
the Library for Research into Books for Young People offers expert advice to
foreign scholarship holders as well as bench space with use of computers.
Books from historical collections can, on principle, only be accessed in the
reading rooms of the Library for Research into Books for Young People. Books
can not be taken out, nor is the library a member of the inter-library loan
system. Photocopying of books from historical collections is possible only by
express permission from library staff.
The library staff regularly receives a substantial number of enquiries from
scientists, students, collectors and antiquarians which are all dealt with
appropriately. The information service does, however, not extend to providing
complete book lists or answering complex research questions.
Since its foundation in 1963 the staff of the Library and of the Institute for
Research into Books for Young People, as well as students, have shown parts of
the historical collections to the public in smaller or bigger exhibitions:
Jugendliteratur aus drei Jahrhunderten (Literature for Young People from Three
Centuries) (Dornbusch House, Frankfurt/Main 1966)
Robinsonausgaben und Robinsonaden (Robinson Editions and Robinsonades)
Sachbucher des 18. Und 19. Jhs. (Non-fiction Books of the 18th and 19th
Centuries) (German College of Booksellers, Frankfurt/Main 1971)
Bilderbucher einst und jetzt (Picture Books then and Now) (City and University
Library, Frankfurt/Main 1973)
Goethe - ein Kinderfreund!? (Goethe - Friend of Children!?) (Heinrich Hoffmann
Museum, Frankfurt/Main 1982)
AIte Kinder- und Jugendbucher. Die Frankfurter Hobrecker-Sammlung (Books of
Yesteryear for Children and Young People. The Frankfurt Hobrecker Collection)
(City and University Library, Frankfurt/Main 1983)
Von Backfischen und Trotzkopfeni. Literatur for hohere Tochter im 19. Jh. (Of
strong-minded Teenage Girls. Literature for Young Ladies in the 19th Century)
(Institute for Research in Books for Young People 1986)
Die Kinderbuchsammlung Walter Benjamin (The Walter Benjamin Children’s Books
Collection) (City and University Library, Frankfurt/Main 1987)
"Ub' immer Treu und Redlichkeit ". Kinder-und Jugendbucher der Kaiserzeit
(1871-1918) ("Always be faithful and honest ". Books for Children and Young
People during Imperial Rule (18 71-1918)) (City and University Library
"Was denkt die Maus am Donnerstag? "- AIte mid Neue Gedichte (Nicht mur).fur
Kinder ( " What is the Mouse thinking of on a Thursday? " - Old and New Poems
(not only) for Children) (House of Literature, Frankfurt/Main 1991)
Grosstad in der Kinder-und Jugendliteratur 1900-1930 (The Big City in
Literature for Children and Young People 1900-1930) (Institute for Research
into Books for Young People 1992)
100 Jahre Jugendschriften-Warte 1893-1993. Austellung anlablich des
einhundertsten Geburtstags der altesten Fachzeitschrift fur Kinder- und
Jugendliteratur (100 Years' Views on Publications for Young People 1893-1993.
An Exhibition celebrating the Centenary of the oldest Specialist Journal for
Literature for Children and Young People) (House of the Union, Education and
Science, Frankfurt/Main 1993)
Blumnehimmel – Alltagsfreunde. Sophie Reinheimer 18 74-1935. (A Sky full of
Flowers - Everyday Friends. Sophie Reinheimer 1874-1935) (City Museum,
Kinder- und Hausmarchen Bruder Grimm. Ausgaben und Illustrationen (Folk and
Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm. Editions and illustrations) (Institute for
Research into Books for Young People 1995)
Indianererzahlungen in der Kinder-und Jugendliteratur (Red Indian Stories in
the Literature for Children and Young People) (Institute for Research into
Books for Young People 1997)
In addition, substantial parts of the collections have been made available for
more than 30 Exhibitions of historical books for children and young people
nationally and internationally
Catalogues have been prepared for most of the exhibitions as well as for some of
the special collections (Hobrecker collection, Benjamin collection). Reports
about the historical collections are published regularly in the 'Newsletter of
the Institute for Research into Books for Young People'. Moreover, the
collections are constantly referred to in specialist journals and specialist
literature, such as the Handbuch der historischen Buchbestande in Deutschland
(Manual of historical book collections in Germany). The historical collections
also offer abundant source material for a number of prestigious research
publications by the Institute and its staff members. The four-volume project by
Klaus Doderer, published between 1974 and 1981, Lexikon der Kinder- und
Jugendliteratur (Lexicon of literature for Children and Young People) (Beltz
Verlag, Weinheim) would not have been possible without the material from the
historical collection. The same is true of the two-volume bibliography,
published in 1996 by Hans-Heino Ewers and Zohar Shavit, Judische Kinder
Jugendliteratur von der Haskala bis 1945 (Jewish Literature for Children and
Young People from the Haskala to 1945) (Metzler Verlag, Stuttgart).
Also based on texts from the historical collections are the anthologies which
cover various epochs of literature for children and young people and offer an
indispensable higher education teaching aid in the department of the science of
literature for children and young people; published by Reclam Veriag,
Stuttgart, they are:
Hans-Heino Ewers (ed.), Kinder- und Jugendliteratur der Aufklarung (Literature
for Children and Young People of the Enlightenmet), 1980.
Hans-Heino Ewers (ed.), Kinder- und Jugendliteratur der Romantik (Literature
for Children and Young People of the Romantic Period), 1984;
Hans-Heino Ewers and Myriam Mieles (eds.), Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Von der
Gtunderzeit bis zum 1. Weltzkrieg (Literature for Children and Young People.
From the years of rapid industrial expansion in Germany in 18 71 to World War
1) 1994, a.o.
Copies from the historical collections have been made available for a number of
reprint editions. Among them were the Santa Claus Christmas books of the German
Post Office 1996 and 1997 that were based on model samples from the Institute
and sold in great numbers at all Post Office counters.
The Institute is in contact with various other institutes in Germany and abroad
which collect historical books for children and young people. The Institute and
its partners hold joint conferences and organise and exchange exhibitions as
well as discuss issues of mutual interest, especially problems of maintenance
Library, Munich, Germany
The early historic book for children and young people of the German speaking
region covers the period from the beginning of printing to around 1890, that is
up to the emergence of children’s literature which, in the process of artistic
innovation around 1900, was modern in design and literary content.
Children’s and young people’s books of the 20th century, published up
to 1950, are defined as historic following a convention that was agreed upon
between German libraries holding historic children’s books, and researchers in
this field. This was chosen as a cut-off year in order to distinguish the
modern post-war children’s book from the earlier publications as German
children’s and young people’s books published up to around 1950 corresponded in
form and style largely to the pre-war production. It was only in the fifties
that the modern children’s book emerged.
During the fifty years of its existence the International Youth Library (Internationale
Jugendbibliothek – IJB) which contains a total of more than
500,000 international children’s and young people’s books has managed mainly by
way of significant donations to establish the largest internationally
orientated historic children’s book collection in Germany with approximately
The cataloguing of a large part of the historic collections has been funded by
the German Research Association (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). These titles
are now available on the internet (www.bib-bvb.de)
Books from the historical book collections, and this includes children’s books,
cannot for conservation and security reasons normally be lent but are only
available for reference in the reading room of the study library (opening hours
Mon-Fri, 10am-4pm). However, this should not exclude them totally from
inter-library loans. In line with regulations of the Bavarian National Library
the IJB releases books published since 1870 for inter-library loans, however
with the proviso that they be used only in the reading rooms and not be
photocopied. The loan of books for exhibitions has to be specially negotiated
and must include additional security facilities (dimly lit, locked display
cupboards, exhibition supervision) and insurance for each title.
The International Youth Library is organising many exhibitions on a wide range
of themes: They are mostly accompanied with examples from the historic
collection. Drawing upon its unique collection, the International Youth Library
frequently contributes to important exhibitions of historic children's books
outside of Munich. The collection is also the basis for many research purposes
and publications about historic children's books, like the "Handbuch zur
Kinder- und Jugendliteratur" (1982-) and others.
Bibliotheek, The Hague. The Netherlands
Exhibitions / Publications
Information on the early and modern children’s book collection of the
Koninklijke Bibliotheek was provided in the past by means of several
exhibitions: in 1983, 1985, 1989, 1990, 1992, 1994 (twice). At some other
important more general book exhibitions, often early and modern children’s
books were shown and presented as an important and very attractive part of the
Koninklijke Bibliotheek collection. In October 2002 there will be a large
exhibition of children’s books of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek collection in the
Kunsthal in Rotterdam, called ‘Wonderland’. Most of the exhibitions were
accompanied by relevant publications or catalogues. In Collectors and
collections (Zwolle 1998) some articles were published on important 20th
century donations / acquisitions of early and modern children’s books by the
Koninklijke Bibliotheek (collections Waller, Boekenoogen, Boek & Jeugd).
The Koninklijke Bibliotheek co-operates with relevant partners in managing early
and modern children’s book collections. This includes cataloguing, preservation
and conservation, digitization, organizing exhibitions and facilitating the
publications of books, bibliographies and articles. In The Netherlands there
are about 25 collections of early and modern children’s books of importance.
Keepers of the collections meet twice a year.
Several parts of the Web site of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (www.kb.nl)
in the sections Gallery and Collections are dedicated to early and modern
Borough Library Service, UK
Though the Wandsworth Collection of Early Children’s Books has never been part
of the main library collection, it has always been available to visitors.
However, there was no coherent policy covering access and handling. Visitors
came by appointment having heard of the collection by word-of-mouth, but little
was done to advertise it widely or consistently.
In 1997 the whole collection was moved to its permanent home in Putney Library.
The collection has always been for reference only and material is available on
demand and by appointment to students and researchers who can view it at Putney
Library under supervision. Foam rests can be provided to support material that
is being studied. At the same time a handling policy was instituted. This
policy includes a request for clean hands, a prohibition on handling the books
near food or drink and a requirement to leave bags and coats with the
librarian. Though individuals may not borrow items, books have been loaned out
for exhibitions to such organisations as The National Trust, Leighton House
(Kensington and Chelsea) as well as to Wandsworth Museum and some of the branch
libraries. Any such loans are made at the discretion of the Borough Librarian.
However, the collection includes a number of facsimiles in its holdings. These
are used, on occasion, by the Children’s Librarians to illustrate presentations
to school classes.
Until recently the collection has not been widely advertised. However, the
publication of the catalogue and the creation of a Wandsworth Libraries Web
site have increased awareness. The Web site in particular offers opportunities
for future promotion, as does the move to add material to the Wandsworth
Utilisation creates its own difficulties, most of which
concern the upkeep of the material while it is being accessed. Given the nature
of historical book collections, maintenance is ongoing and is dealt with in
more detail in the conservation reports. However, collection utilisation will
also be part of collection conservation with regard to how access is allowed
and under what conditions. In all of the cases dealt with here, the collections
are for reference only and access is by appointment or is supervised by staff.
Material is exhibited according to the size of the collection. For instance,
the entire Buckinghamshire collection is on permanent display and is combined
with a printed catalogue. On the other hand, the Frankfurt collection, being
very large, occasionally displays parts of its collections as themed
The problem of accessing records via a catalogue emerged where material was not
specifically identified as belonging to a children’s literature category. In
Dublin City Libraries, staff are examining how material which is yet to be
catalogued on-line can be better accessed in the future under a category of
children’s historical literature. Experience gained in this area is expected to
have applications in other areas of the library collection in terms of
separating material into distinct groups.
Library staff, when faced with the discovery of previously unknown or
uncategorised material, need guidelines on how to at first ‘rescue’ this part
of their stock from anonymity and then to use it as a dynamic part of their
library programme. The above examples provide some inspiration in future
Any efforts to exploit such collections will depend on the facilities available,
the resources at hand in terms of staff and funds and on the likely outlet for
using the collection e.g. education programme. Frankfurt’s plan to extend its
opening hours into Saturday requires staff and security measures before access
can be increased.
Conservation and preservation often involve heavy expenditure that may limit the
use of the collection. Suitable space to store, display and allow access to a
collection has to be available. Such requirements will always be regarded in
the light of financial and spatial pressures.
Once established, a collection can rely on ‘word-of-mouth’ to attract interest.
However, more sophisticated publicity will probably be necessary to add value
to the expertise and funding expended on preserving the collection. The
Buckinghamshire library service published both a catalogue of the collection
and a leaflet for distribution in the county and other relevant organisations
The publishing of the experience of the project partners is a valuable tool in
further promoting collections of children’s historical literature. In several
cases described above, children’s literature was not recognised as a distinct
collection for exploitation purposes. The situation has emerged from research
in the CHILDE project suggests that holding boxes of books in a store unused
and not maintained may also occur in other libraries. Therefore, the generation
of professional awareness of the treasures in children’s literature,
uncatalogued and under-promoted, has emerged as a positive outcome of the
It is anticipated therefore, that CHILDE will have catalytic effects in
marketing, utilisation and dissemination of similar collections held by other
libraries in the future.
Dublin City Public Libraries